Welcome to ABDO College

Did you know your Internet Explorer is out of date?

To get the best possible experience using our website we recommend that you upgrade to a newer version or other web browser. A list of the most popular web browsers can be found below.

Just click on the icons to get to the download page

If you understand that your browser is inadequate but you still wish to view the site click here

 - ABDO College

Manual of Monocular Subjective Refraction


H Freeman FBOA (Hons) FSMC DOrth
Research Medallist, BOA

68 pages


  • Initial Stages
  • Technical Analysis Charts
  • Visual Acuity
  • Approximate Spherical Correction
  • Best Sphere
  • Bichromatic Test
  • Astigmatism
  • Cross Cylinder
  • Fan & Block
  • Final Monocular Sphere
  • Bibliography

Essential reading for the following ABDO College course:

  • Contact Lens Certificate