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 - ABDO College


Do soft lens materials present a higher risk of acanthamoeba infection to contact lens wearers compared to rigid lens materials?

By Frances Stoker BSc Ophthalmic Dispensing

This article appears in the June 2022 edition of Re: View magazine.


Beattie T K et al. 2003. Enhanced attachment of acanthamoeba to extended-wear silicone hydrogel contact lenses: a new risk factor for infection? Ophthalmology, 110(4), pp 765-771.

Bostrom M and O’Keefe R. 2008. What experimental approaches (eg, in vivo, in vitro, tissue retrieval) are effective in investigating the biologic effects of particles? Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, volume 16, pp 63-67.

Carnt N et al. 2018. Acanthamoeba keratitis: confirmation of the UK outbreak and a prospective case-control study identifying contributing risk factors. British Journal of Ophthalmology, volume 102, pp 1621-1628.

Chin J, Young A L, Hui M and Jhanji V. 2015. Acanthamoeba keratitis: 10-year study at a tertiary eye care center in Hong Kong. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye, 38(2), pp 99-103.

Dutta D, Cole N and Willcox M. 2012. Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Molecular Vision, volume 18, pp 14-21.

Efron N, Nichols J J, Woods C A and Morgan P B. 2015. Trends in US contact lens prescribing 2002 to 2014. Optometry and Vision Science, 92(7), pp 758-767.

Gomes de Lacerda A and Lira M. 2021. Acanthamoeba keratitis: a review of biology, pathophysiology and epidemiology. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics, 41(1), pp 116-135.

Gray T B, Cursons R T, Sherwan J F and Rose P R. 1995. Acanthamoeba, bacterial, and fungal contamination of contact lens storage cases. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 79(6), pp  601-605.

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Ibrahim Y W, Boase D L and Cree I A. 2009. How could contact lens wearers be at risk of acanthamoeba infection? A review. Journal of Optometry, 2(2), pp 60-66.

Kelly L D, Long D and Mitra D. 1995. Quantitative comparison of acanthamoeba castellanii adherence to rigid versus soft contact lenses. The CLAO Journal, 21(2), pp 11-113.

Kilvington S and Larkin D F P. 1990. Acanthamoeba adherence to contact lenses and removal by cleaning agents. Eye, volume 4, pp 589-593.

Lee G-H, Yu H-S and Lee J-E. 2016. Effects of multipurpose solutions on the adhesion of acanthamoeba to rigid gas permeable contact lenses. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics, 36(2), pp 93-99.

Lee  S-M, Lee J-E, Lee D-I and Yu H-S. 2018. Adhesion of acanthamoeba on cosmetic contact lenses. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 33(4).

Lema I, Rodriguez-Ares T M, Gomez-Torreiro M and Penalver D M. 2001. Adherence of acanthamoeba to unworn conventional and disposable soft contact lenses. Cornea, 20(6), pp 635-638.

Lira M et al. 2008. Comparative study of silicone‐hydrogel contact lenses surfaces before and after wear using atomic force microscopy. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 85B(2), pp 361-367.

Lorenzo-Morales J et al. 2013. Acanthamoeba keratitis: an emerging disease gathering importance worldwide? Trends in Parasitology, 29(4), pp 181-187.

Omaña-Molina M et al. 2014. Silicone hydrogel contact lenses surface promote acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites adherence: qualitative and quantitative analysis. Eye & Contact Lens Science and Clinical Practice, 40(3), pp 132-139.

Preston T M and King C A. 1984. Amoeboid locomotion of acanthamoeba castellanii with special reference to cell-substratum interactions. Journal of General Microbiology, volume 130, pp 2317-2323.

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Reverey J F, Fromme R, Leippe M and Selhuber-Unkel C. 2014. In vitro adhesion of acanthamoeba castellanii to soft contact lenses depends on water content and disinfection procedure. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye, 37(4), pp 262-266.

Seal D V et al. 1995. Differential adherence of acanthamoeba to contact lenses: effects of material characteristics. Optometry and Vision Science, 72(1), pp 23-28.

Sharma S, Ramachandran L and Rao G N. 1995. Adherence of cysts and trophozoites of acanthamoeba to unworn rigid gas permeable and soft contact lenses. The CLAO Journal, 21(4), pp 247-251.

Siddiqui R and Khan N A. 2012. Biology and pathogenesis of acanthamoeba. Parasites & Vectors, 5(6).

Simmons P A, Tomlinson A and Seal D V. 1998. The Role of pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm in the attachment of acanthamoeba to four types of hydrogel contact lens materials. Optometry and Vision Science, 75(12), pp 860-866.

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Stephen C, Musgrave A and Fang F. 2019. Contact lens materials: a materials science perspective. Materials, 12(2), p 261.

Szentmary N et al. 2019. Acanthamoeba keratitis – clinical signs, differential diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Current Ophthalmology, 31(1), pp 16-23.

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Yoshii A et al. 2009. Analysis of the reporting of search strategies in Cochrane systematic reviews. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 97(1), pp 21-29.


How does the use of ocular cosmetics affect the anterior eye? 

By Kathryn Chidwick BSc Ophthalmic Dispensing

This article appears in the December 2021 edition of Re: View magazine.


Bergler-Czop B, Bilewicz-Stebel M, Stańkowska A and Bilewicz-Wyrozumska T. 2016. Side effects of retinoid therapy on the quality of vision. Acta Pharmaceutica, 66(4), pp 471-478.

BioPortfolio 2020. Global cosmetics products market – segmented by product type (hair care products, skin care products, oral care products, colour cosmetic products), distribution channel (direct selling, supermarkets, specialty stores) and region – growth, trends and forecasts (2018-2023). Mordor Intelligence LLC, pp 3.

Buckley R. 2012. Time to wake up to make-up. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 32(6), pp 443-445.

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Coroneo M, Rosenberg M and Cheung L. 2006. Ocular effects of cosmetic products and procedures. The ocular surface, 4(2), pp 94-102.

Cottrell S. 2011. Critical thinking skills: developing effective analysis and argument. 2nd ed. Palgrave Macmillan, pp 157.

Coroneo M, Rosenberg M and Cheung L. 2006. Ocular effects of cosmetic products and procedures. The Ocular Surface, 4(2), pp 94-102.

Coughlan M, Cronin P and Ryan F. 2007. Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. part 1: quantitative research. British Journal of Nursing, 16(11), pp 658-663.

Coughlan M, Cronin P and Ryan F. 2007. Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. part 2: qualitative research. British Journal of Nursing, 16(12), pp 738-744.

Ding J and Sullivan D. 2012. Aging and dry eye disease. Experimental Gerontology, 47(7), pp 483-490.

Giacomel C, Dartora G, Dienfethaeler H and Haas S. 2013. Investigation on the use of expired make-up and microbiological contamination of mascaras. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 35(4), pp 375-380.

Goto T, Zheng X, Gibbon L and Ohashi Y. 2010. Cosmetic product migration onto the ocular surface: exacerbation of migration after eyedrop instillation. Cornea, 29(4), pp 400-403.

Ibrahim N, Seraj H, Khan R, Baabdullah M and Reda L. 2018. Prevalence, habits and outcomes of using contact lenses among medical students. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 34(6).

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Lievens C, Cilimberg K and Moore A. 2017. Contact lens care tips for patients: an optometrist’s perspective. Clinical Optometry 9(1), pp 113-121.

Loretz L, Api A, Babcock L, Barraj L, Burdick J, Cater K, Jarrett G, Mann S, Pan Y, Re T, Renskers K and Scrafford C. 2008. Exposure data for cosmetic products: facial cleanser, hair conditioner and eye shadow. Food and Chemical Toxicology  46(5), pp 1516-1524.

Lundov M and Zachariae C. 2008. Recalls of microbiologically contaminated cosmetics in EU from 2005 to May 2008. International Journal of Cosmetic Science  30(6), pp 471-474.

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Ng A, Evans K, North R and Purslow C. 2012. Eye cosmetic usage and associated ocular comfort. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 32(6), pp 501-507.

Ng A, Evans K, North R and Purslow C. 2015. Migration of cosmetic products into the tear film. Eye & Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice, 41(5), pp 304-309.

Pack L, Wickham M, Enloe R and Hill D. 2008. Microbial contamination associated with mascara use. Optometry – Journal of the American Optometric Association, 79(10), pp 587-593.

O’Callaghan R. 2018. The pathogenesis of staphylococcus aureus eye infections. Pathogens, 7(1), pp 9.

Park M, Kim S, Ku B and Kim S. 2013. Comparisons of the change in soft contact lenses parameters and the cleaning efficiency after eyeliner deposition. Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, 18(2), pp 107-115.

Petrosyan T. 2018. Cosmetics and the eye: how your beauty products could be harming your eyes. (online) American Optometric Association.  Available from https://www.aoa.org/Documents/CPC%20SUBMISSION%20%20Cosmetics%20and%20the%20Eye%20How%20Your%20Beauty%20Products%20Could%20Be%20Harming%20Your%20Eyes.pdf (accessed 25 April 2020).

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Skowron K, Jakubicz A, Budzynska A, Kaczmarek A, Grudlewska K, Reslinski A  and Gospodarek-Komkowska E. 2017. Microbiological purity assessment of cosmetics used by one and several persons and cosmetics after their expiry date.  Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny, 68(2), pp 191-197.

Tavazzi S, Rossi A, Picarazzi S, Ascagni M, Farris S and Borghesi A. 2017  Polymer-interaction driven diffusion of eyeshadow in soft contact lenses. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye, 40(5), pp 335-339.

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The effectiveness of orthkeratology as a method of myopia control by Timothy Nicholson BSc(Hons) FBDO

This article appears in the July 2021 edition of Re: View magazine.


Aagard T, Lund H and Juhl C. 2016. Optimizing literature search in systematic reviews – are MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL enough for identifying effect studies within the area of musculoskeletal disorders?’, BMC Medical Research Methodology 16, pp 161.

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Armengol J. Faria-Ribeiro M, Gonzalez-Meijome J, Quevedo L, Morales H, Paune J. 2015. Myopia control with a novel peripheral gradient soft lens and rrthokeratology: a 2-year clinical trial. BioMed Research International: 507572.

Bao F, Calossi A, Chen H, Huang J, Li X, Savini G, Wang Q, Wen D. 2015). Efficacy and acceptability of orthokeratology for slowing myopic progression in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Opthalmology 2015, pp 17-243.

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Bi H, Guo D, Guo J, Si J, Tang K, Wang X. 2015. Orthokeratology for myopia control: a meta-analysis. Optometry and Vision Science 92, pp 252-257.

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Chen L, Huang Y, Lin H, Tsai A, Tsai F, Tsai Y, Wan, L. 2014. Overnight orthokeratology is comparable with atropine in controlling myopia. BMC Ophthalmology 14, pp 40.

Chiu C, Lee Y, Wang J. 2017. Effect of orthokeratology on myopia progression: twelve-year results of a retrospective cohort study. BMC Ophthalmology 17, pp 242-248.

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Hoang Q, Matsumura S, Seang-Mei S. 2019. Prevention and management of myopia and myopic pathology. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (60), pp 488-499.

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 Kelly L, Pierre-Hansen N. 2008. So many databases, such little clarity. Searching the literature for the topic aboriginal. Canadian Family Physician 54(11), pp 1572-1573.

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British Journal of Nursing 17(11), pp 720-724.

The effects of coloured overlays/tints on the visual function of patients with age-related macular degeneration

By Nicola Hunt BSc(Hons) FBDO


Aveyard H and Sharp P. 2009. A beginners guide to evidence-based practice in health and social care. Berkshire Open University Press p.25/p.67.

Bailie M et al. 2013. Functional and perceived benefits of wearing coloured filters by patients with age-related macular degeneration. Clinical and Experimental Optometry.

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Eperjesi F, Fowler C W and Evans B J W. 2004. Effect of light filters on reading speed in normal and low vision due to age related macular degeneration. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 24(1):17-25. doi: 10.1046/j.1475-1313.2003.00157.x

Eperjesi F, Fowler C W and Evans B J W. 2002. Do tinted lenses or filters improve visual performance in low vision? A review of the literature. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 22:68-77.

Eperjesi F, Fowler C W and Evans B J W. 2004. The effects of coloured light filter overlays on reading rates in age related macular degeneration. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 82:695-700.

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Study advice

So, you don’t think you have any low vision patients in your practice?

By Gillian Smith, BSc(Hons) FBDO (Hons) SLD (Hons) LVA Cert Ed


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